SKIP TO THE PICTURES
The Microchip is the single most important invention of the 20th century and perhaps of all time. It has changed our lives and the way we do business more than anything else we have seen in our lifetimes. Microchips are used in almost everything today, even in some devices that would be better off without them. They are in our cars, in our TVs and stereos, our refrigerators, even in our toasters. They are used to make music and sounds, pictures and just about everything else you can think of. They control machines and equipment that produce the products that we buy every day, in fact, it would be nearly impossible to be in any room today without something that contains a microchip or was produced using them in production. In other words, Microchips affect most everything we see and touch every day in some way.
BUILDING OUR CHIP is very much like making a sandwich, it is done in layers. First we use a layer of nonconductive resin for a base. Then we put a thin coating of one of our metals over the resin. The metal is then given a coating of light sensitive chemical. Next we use one of our image negatives in the photographic reducer to project the image and reduce it down to the size of our chip. The image is projected onto the light sensitive chemical which causes a chemical reaction to occur in the coating. It is then bathed in developer and washed with solvent. The areas where the light passed through the negative are washed away and the dark areas are affixed to the metal. The chip is then submerged in a chemical enchant which eats away the metal where the light sensitive coating was removed and leaves the metal untouched where the light has struck it. This process reproduces the image from the negative onto the chip. Next we apply a layer of silicone, change the image in the projector and repeat the process. We continue building our chip sandwich using different elements and etching different patterns in each allowing electricity to conduct through different parts of the different layers. What we have done is to build all the transistors, resistors, diodes and capacitors at the same time, with one part of each component in each layer. After the last layer is completed we can attach tiny wires to the completed sandwich and connect them to the pins on the bottom half of the protective resin housing. The top of the resin housing is then laminated in place and our chip is ready to be installed in most anything but the kitchen sink. On second thought, there is a faucet out now that contains a microchip and scientists are even experimenting with ways to install them in our heads and connect them to our brains. Opps, they have already done that too, to control muscle spasims and some brain disorders. You could have one in your head and not even realize it, do you wear a hearing aid?
The first ic chip consisted of two transistors integrated into one small package.
The first computer performed only one function and was built for the military using hot and bulky vacuum tubes.
It was used to calculate artillary trajectories and was as big as a house.
If vacuum tubes were used in place of this chip it would be the size of a city block. Transistor technology here would still be the size of a house.
Microphotography and modern technology can now produce this chip smaller than your little finger nail.
The small size and low voltages used allows these circuits to operate while using almost no electrical current.
By combining several microchips into one chip, the microprocessor was developed. This chip is slightly larger but still smaller than your fingernail.
The Pentium microprocessor can do a hundred thousand times the work of the first computer and can do it in a tiny fraction of the time it use to take to do just one calculation